Textual Criticism


Here's what you will find on this page:

Images of NT Manuscripts
Audio and Video
Books & Other Manuscripts Available Online



This website has the apparatus to the SBL Greek New Testament.
Bruce Terry's Student's Guide
This is a textual commentary on the New Testament especially written for those without a working knowledge of Greek. Terry also has a helpful "introduction" to NT textual criticism on this page. 
Catalogue of NT Papyri and Codices
K. C. Hanson has a helpful list of NT manuscripts with (1) date, (2) content, (3) family, and (4) housing location.
Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts
Find excellent descriptions about New Testament manuscripts as well as view high-res images of them via this website. Click on the left-tabs in order to explore the site and find resources such as Dan Wallace's Textual Commentary Notes.
Center for the Study and Preservation of the Majority Text
The Center for Study and Preservation of the Majority Text (CSPMT) is an organization dedicated to scholarly study, research and preservation of Byzantine Greek New Testament manuscripts. Find relevant resources in full-text .pdf by clicking on collations and resources.
Complete List of Greek NT Papyri
Wieland Willker offers this helpful list of NT papyri. In addition to the standard information, he provides the Aland categories (1, 2, 3, 4) in one column. 
Digital Nestle-Aland Prototype
The Digital Nestle-Aland is the forthcoming electronic version of the standard scholarly edition of the Greek New Testament. It offers two major features not available in the printed book: Transcripts of important Greek manuscripts of the New Testament New complete apparatus based on these transcripts The Digital Nestle-Aland is a project of the Institute for New Testament Textual Research at the University of Münster, Westphalia, Germany.
Encyclopedia of New Testament Textual Criticism
Bob Waltz’s Encyclopedia contains a number of solid entries on all things dealing with New Testament textual criticism. 
Evangelical Textual Criticism
This is a forum for people with knowledge of the Bible in its original languages to discuss its manuscripts and textual history from the perspective of historic evangelical theology.
From Papyri to King James
The University of Michigan has an annual display of ancient manuscripts showing the different stages of the New Testament in written form. This website is a sample of that display, showing seven cases of the exhibit with a little commentary per image. 
Greek Manuscript Research Center
This is the website of Andrews University’s Greek Manuscript Research Center in Michigan. They are continually acquiring microfilms of Greek New Testament manuscripts for research purposes. 
Hughes' The Lukan Special Material and the Tradition History of the Pericope Adulterae
Here is a complete .pdf of Kyle Hughes' article on the Pericope Adulterae from Novum Testamentum 55. Hughes concludes that the pericope was not originally a part of the third Gospel.
HCNTTS New Testament Textual Commentary 
The Center for Textual Studies at New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary has created a massive database of 17,000 pages that's going into a software module. Currently only a preview is available online of Philippians.
Institut für Neutestamentliche Textforschung
This is the webpage for the Institute for New Testament Textual Research (INTF). Their central task is to research the textual history of the New Testament and to reconstruct its Greek initial text on the basis of the entire manuscript tradition, the early translations, and patristic citations. 
Institut für Papyrologie, Uni Heidelberg
This is the website for the Institute for Papyrology at the University of Heidelberg in Germany. The site is completely in German. They have a helpful list of list of links to other sites having to do with papyrology here.
Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts Web
Timothy Seid's website provides an overview of textual criticism including images. The main focus of the web page is the process used to study the ancient manuscripts upon which the New Testament is based. While the language discussed is Greek, almost everything is explained with transliterations into English and, where applicable, translations from standard English Bibles. 
Manuscript Comparator
This tool allows two or more New Testament manuscript editions to be easily compared to one another in side-by-side and unified views. Though it is slightly misnamed (since it doesn't actually compare individual manuscripts), it is a helpful tool for comparing the major editions (for example, comparing Westcott and Hort's Text to the Textus Receptus).
Mark Goodacre's Links To Books & Other Manuscripts
NT Gateway has a lengthy list of books, articles, and dissertations dealing with textual criticism that are available for viewing and/or download via the web. 
New Testament TC Chart Timesaver
This site will build your textual criticism charts (for a fee). 
Palmer's Table of NT Greek Manuscripts
David Palmer's web page lists the names, branches, and dates of all the ancient witnesses to the New Testament text up to the seventh century. 
Peter van Minnen's Dating the Oldest New Testament Manuscripts
This article provides a history and discussion of methods used for dating New Testament manuscripts.
TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism
This journal is “an electronic journal dedicated to the study of Jewish and Christian biblical texts.” Scholars, take note: They encourage articles that “discuss the relationship between textual criticism and other disciplines.”
Texts and Traditions 
From the publisher's website: "The methodology of New Testament textual criticism, the critical evaluation of readings, and the history and texts of early Christianity are the focus of the influential work of J. K. Elliott. Texts and Traditions offers eighteen essays on these topics in his honor."
Textual Research on the Bible: An Introduction to the Scholarly Editions of the German Bible Society
The German Bible Society published this little handbook that serves as a guide for students new to Old and New Testament textual research. It is a handy little introduction and is free in .pdf format!
The Brice C. Jones Blog
This is the blog of Brice C. Jones, a PhD candidate in the Department of Religion at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec. His primary interests are: Papyrology; New Testament textual criticism; Greek and Coptic palaeography; and the Synoptic Gospels. 
The Early Greek Bible Manuscripts Project
The Early Greek Bible Manuscripts Project is a Tyndale House research project under the auspices of the Institute for the Study of Early Christianity in its Greco-Roman Setting. A team from the EGBMP have recently identified portions of five NT majuscule manuscripts among a collection of unidentified Greek manuscript fragments in the possession of a private collector in Cambridge. They are all quite small (having been cut up in antiquity and used for binding materials), but comprise material from Romans, Mark, John, and Luke covering a period form IV/V to VIII cent.  
The H. Milton Haggard Center for New Testament Textual Studies
This is the Center’s website, part of New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary. The Center houses a large collection of New Testament Greek manuscripts in digital, microfilm, and facsimile formats. This is the overall site.
For the Center's Main Page, click here.

For the Center's Online Textual Commentary, click here. Currently, they have only provided commentary on Philippians, but more is coming.

For the Center's Greek manuscript App, click here
The International Greek New Testament Project (or, IGNTP)
This project exists to produce a comprehensive critical apparatus of the Greek New Testament. They are working on the Novum Testamentum Graecum - Editio Critica Maior edition of John. 
The King James Bible Research Council
The King James Bible Research Council (KJBRC) is an organization dedicated to promoting the King James Bible and other traditional texts around the world in a solid and sensible way. The blog is available here.  
The Last Twelve Verses of Mark: A Bibliography
An extensive bibliography on the question of the ending of the Gospel of Mark.
The Unbound Bible
This website has the Westcott-Hort Greek New Testament with NA27/UBS4 variants.
Wallace's Interview on Textual Criticism
The Gospel coalition has posted this interview with Daniel Wallace which consists of an overview of TC.
Wieland Willker’s Textual Criticism Page
Willker’s “An Online Textual Commentary on the Greek Gospels (+2500 pages) is worth checking out in addition to his other valuable resources.  

Images of NT Manuscripts

Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts
Find excellent descriptions about New Testament manuscripts as well as view high-res images of them via this website. Click on the left-tabs in order to explore the site and find resources such as Dan Wallace's Textual Commentary Notes.
Chester Beatty Library
The Chester Beatty Library's collection includes papyrus manuscripts, rolls, codices and individual documents and ostraca, from Pharaohic, Graeco-Roman and Coptic Egypt ranging in date from 1800 BC to AD 800. 
Codex Alexandrinus Online Images
This is volume 4 of Codex Alexandrinus (Gregory-Aland 02), which contains the New Testament. 
Codex Bezae Online Images
The University of Cambridge has made a digital copy of Codex Bezae available here with introduction and summary. 
Codex Claromontanus Online Images
These images of Codex Claromontanus are made available by the Bibliothèque Nationale de France.  
Codex Ephraimi Rescriptus Online Images
These images of Codex Ephraimi Rescriptus are made available by the Bibliothèque Nationale de France.
Codex Nitriensis Online Images
The text, made available by the British Library, contains the Gospel of Luke and Euclid's Elementa written in majuscule script. 
Codex Sinaiticus Project
This website features Codex Sinaiticus, a handwritten manuscript containing the entire Bible in Greek. It is the oldest complete copy of the New Testament, written over 1600 years ago. Through this web page, views can see high resolution images of the manuscript and search for any particular passage.
Duke's Papyrus Archive
Are you looking for images and descriptions of ancient papyri, including those dealing with the New Testament and early Christianity? Duke has a wonderful resource. To access the section dealing specifically with the NT and early Christianity, click "Religious Aspects." 
Heidelberg Papyrus Collection
This site contains images of the Heidelberg Papyrus Collection. To access the Demotic Papyi click here. For the Coptic Papyri click here. The sites are in German, but users can copy descriptions into Google Translate in order to read them.
An online edition of the majuscule manuscripts of John, featuring full transcriptions and a critical apparatus, is available at this link or by clicking here
Mark Goodacre's Links to Manuscript Images
Do you want to see the actual manuscript you are reading about? This is a good resource to check for quality images. 
New Testament Virtual Manuscript Room
This is an excellent resource for viewing many manuscripts, transcriptions, etc. It is hosted by the Center for New Testament Textual Criticism in Münster. Be advised that their viewer only functions in non-Explorer browsers, such as Firefox, Opera, and Mac Safari.
The British Library Greek Collection
The Greek Manuscripts Digitisation Project, funded by the Stavros Niarchos Foundation, was a pilot project devoted to the full digitisation of 284 Greek manuscripts. The digitised manuscripts, together with summary catalogue descriptions, are now available at the Digitised Manuscripts section of the British Library's website.
The Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
This is a free online digitized virtual library of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Hundreds of manuscripts made up of thousands of fragments – discovered from 1947 and until the early 1960’s in the Judean Desert along the western shore of the Dead Sea – are now available to the public online. The high resolution images are extremely detailed and can be accessed through various search options on the site. The number of Greek (LXX) manuscripts is small but the page is definitely worth checking out.
The Schøyen Collection
This collection “comprises most types of manuscripts from the whole world spanning over 5000 years. It is the largest private manuscript collection formed in the 20th century. Never before there has been formed a collection with such variety geographically, linguistically, textually, and of scripts, writing materials, etc., over such a great span of time as 5 millennia.”   


Byzantine Paleography
This page is hosted by Fordham University and features digital images of different Greek manuscripts (not NT).

Audio and Video

Ehrman's 2007 Misquoting Jesus Lecture
The audio and video for this event, hosted at the Washington National Cathedral, is available free. To watch the video, viewers need to install Microsoft Silverlight. DVD's of the event are available at a charge.
Elliott's Recently Discovered New Testament Papyri Lecture
James Keith Elliott speaks about recently discovered New Testament papryi and their significance for textual criticism. This video is available through iTtunes U by Université de Lausanne, Théologie et sciences des religions (It is number 55, from 1/8/2012).
Erasmus' Greek New Testament
Emory University has made this short video available through iTunes U. It is a 10 minute video of and commentary on Erasmus' Greek New Testament. Click number 3, entitled "Erasmus' Greek New Testament."
Kloha's "Why Your Greek New Testament Will Look Different in Ten Years" Lecture
At Concordia Seminary in 2007, Jeffrey Khola talks about the development of the Nestle-Aland/UBS and what the future holds for New Testament textual criticism. This lecture is made available through iTunes U. It is number seven in the list.
Silva's Development of NT Textual Criticism Lectures
This is the audio of Moisés Silva's textual criticism lectures at the Westminster Theological Seminary. You can listen to Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, and Questions and Answers.
The KJBRC's Audio
The King James Bible Research Council (KJBRC) is an organization dedicated to promoting the King James Bible and other traditional texts around the world in a solid and sensible way. Scroll down and look through all of the audio files. Some are applicable, while others are not.
The KJBRC 2012 Conference Videos
Follow this link to view a number of presentations at the 2012 KJBRC  Conference. The audio files are available here.
UNIL's Read the NT Papyri in Their Contexts Symposium
The seven lectures, which include Elliott's "Recently Discovered New Testament Papyri" lecture, were recorded at the Université de Lausanne's Graduate School in 2009. They are made available through iTunes U. They are in French (one in German), except for Elliott's lecture, which is in English.
University of Michigan's Papyrus Conservation Videos
There are three videos linked embedded in the Evangelical Textual Criticism blog worth viewing. They show how these manuscripts are cared for and preserved.  
Voelz's "Does Mark Really End with 16:8?" Lecture
James Voelz talks about the ending of Mark in this Concordia Seminary 2007 Exegetical Reflections lecture. It is available through iTunes U. Simply click number four in the list.
Voelz Textual Criticism Lecture
James Voelz speaks about textual criticism in lecture 29 of his Biblical Hermeneutics Collection, available through iTunes U. The thirty minutes is on textual criticism. Find out how he says the original text is recreated.  
The Vrije-Universiteit-Amsterdam Theology Interviews Collection
This collection includes four interviews and is available through iTunes U. The fourth interview, of interest here, is between Lietaert Peerbolte, Professor of New Testament Studies and Jan Krans, Professor of New Testament Studies about Codex Sinaiticus.
Wallace's An Insider's Look into the Work of CSNTM Collection
This is a behind the scenes look at the work that the Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts and what it is doing to preserve the Bible and make available ancient manuscripts for the study of scholars around the world. This collection contains videos documenting recent expeditions, interviews, and news concerning CSNTM. It is available through iTunes U.
Wallace's Disputed New Testament Passages Collection
In this series, made available through iTunes U., Daniel Wallace put his textual criticism methodology into practice on some of the New Testament's most debated passages.
Wallace's Famous Manuscripts and the Stories Behind Them Collection
Daniel Wallace discusses the discovery of P52, Codex Sinaiticus, and Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus. This is made available through iTunes U.
Wallace's Scribal Methods and Materials Collection
Daniel Wallace discusses the methods and materials of the early scribes up to the establishment of the printing press and beyond. This is made available through iTunes U.
Wallace's The Basics of New Testament Textual Criticism Collection
This is a collection of 15 lessonettes in video made available through iTunes U.  
Wallace's Textual Criticism Series
These are portions of Daniel Wallace's history on the transmission of the New Testament series, which he gives to local churches. Currently there are only four parts to the series available. The website mentions that more may become available. 

Books & Other Manuscripts Available Online

Anderson, Amy Sue. Codex 1582 and Family 1 of the Gospels: The Gospel of Matthew (Phd dissertation Univ. of Birmingham, 1999). *Registration required.

Anderson, Douglas Lloyd. "Vocalic Phonlogogy in New Testament Manuscripts." M.A. thesis, Emory University, 2003.

Chan, Chim Yuk. The Relationship between Textual Criticism and the Synoptic Question: A Study Based on the Passion Narrative. (Phd. dissertation Murdoch Univ, 2005).

Dykes, Oary S. "The Greek New Testament and the Old Slavonic Version." Unknown Publication.

Dykstra, Tom. "David Trobisch and David Parker on the Origin of the New Testament, the Historical Jesus, and How Manuscripts Can Reveal What Texts Conceal."

Fee, Gordon. The Significance of Papyrus Bodmer II and Papyrus Bodmer XIV-XV for Methodology in New Testament Textual Criticism. (Phd. diss. Univ. So. Calif., 1966). *This deals with P66 and P75.

Gabler, Hans Walter. "Textual Criticism." In The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism. Edited by Michael Groden and Martin Kreiswirth. The Johns Hopkins University Press, ): 708-714). It is available for free through iTunes U here.  Click entry 25 "Textual Criticism."

Origen's Hexapla in Fragments Volume 1 and Volume 2.

Van Minnen, Peter. "Dating the Oldest New Testament Manuscripts." NTGateway.com.