Septuagint (LXX)


Here's what you will find on this page:

Books & Other Materials Available Online



Amos Flashcards
This resource is an export from Logos that provides the vocabulary of Amos as flashcards. 
Amos Vocabulary
This pdf is an export from Logos that provides the vocabulary of Amos along with the word count, card front, and gloss. 
The Apostolic Bible Polyglot
This site provides many resources. You will find a LXX interlinear, concordance, English-Greek Index, Analytical Lexicon, Video Seminars and much much more.
Biblia Graeca - Septuagint + NA28
The German Bible Society will release a new text that will combine Rhalfs Septuagint text with the NA28. Now you can have both Old and New Testaments in the Greek!
Brenton's Translation of the Septuagint
Brenton's older translation (1851) of the Septuagint can be viewed online here.
Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint/Scriptural Study
This is a project by Robert Kraft and the University of Pennsylvania to publish LXX texts and resources. Currently the page is home to a parallel Hebrew-Greek OT, a morphological analysis module, and a textual variants resource.
Elpenor Parallel English-Greek OT
This is an Elpenor resource, hosted online (i.e., not available for download), which allows visitors to read the Greek and English side-by-side. It features the Greek text used by the Church of Greece.  
International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies
The International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies is an international society dedicated to the research and study of the Septuagint. Here you can learn about the various project that are currently being undertaken, announcements pertaining to upcoming meetings and conferences, the journal, and how to become a member of the society.
New English Translation of the Septuagint
Here one can have free access to the recently published New English Translation of the Septuagint. Not only is there a translation of all the books of the LXX, there are also translation notes and introductions for each book discussing the major issues accompanying the study of the individual books. It can be downloaded for free.
Psalm 1, Recited in Greek, by Jayson Ramiscal
Jayson Ramiscal provides a clear recitation of Greek Psalm 1 from memory. 
Psalm 1, Recited in Hebrew, by C.K. Oon
C.K. Oon provides a clear recitation of Hebrew Psalm 1 from memory. 
Septuagint Online
Joel Kalvesmaki's website hosts resources and a Septuagint and Old Greek Studies discussion list (Yahoo Group). His tab "Studies and Analysis" is a link to a plethora of LXX resources, including grammars, other LXX web pages, and translation techniques in the LXX. The discussion list aims to facilitate exchange between theologians, biblical scholars, philologists, and students of Septuagint studies in order to contribute to further understanding of the Septuagint and Old Greek versions of the Hebrew Scriptures. Their discussions involves a number of disciplines, including philology, theology, classics, biblical studies, religion, and literary criticism.
This website provides the Septuagint text with parsing, as well as Latin helps.
Septuagint Summer School
Each summer a week-long study of the Septuagint takes place in Göttingen. The topics change from year to year and are taught in English by various leading scholars within Septuagint studies. 
The Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism
"The Centre for Septuagint Studies and Textual Criticism primarily aims at doing text-critical research (collation, description and evaluation of the textual variants) of the Hebrew and Greek textual evidence of the Old Testament."

Books & Other Materials Available Online

Aaron W. Park's The Book of Amos as Composed and Read in Antiquity
Park's article looks at the transmission of Amos (LXX) while focusing on the differences between the Old Greek and the MT. 
Abram K-J's Greek Isaiah in a Year
Abram K.J. has divided up the Greek text of Isaiah into manageable chunks to be read throughout the year. In each post, he provides a copy of the Greek text for translation. 
Abram K-J's How to Read and Understand the Göttingen Septuagint
Here is a primer on how to read and understand the largest scholarly edition of the Greek translation of the Old Testament. Part 1 covers the Greek text and the source list. Part 2 covers critical apparatus.
Benjamin G. Wright III's The Letter of Aristeas and the Question of Septuagint Origins Redux
The claims made by the Letter of Aristeas on behalf of the Septuagint (and by Septuagint, Wright only has the Pentateuch in view) are thorny. One of these claims, which Wright says unconsciously undergirds much of scholarship, contends that the Greek translation was meant to supplant the Hebrew original. This article examines this claim in light of the actual character of the Septuagint. 
Benjamin G. Wright III's Translation Greek in Sirach in Light of the Grandson's Prologue
Wright, in this article, finds the prologue to Sirach to be a fascinating look into the mind and attitude of an ancient translator. He observes that the prologue, written by the translator, has a quality of Greek that is not matched throughout the translation. Wright reflects on the significance this has in the study of translation technique. The article also engages with the works of Theo A. W. van der Louw's Transformations in the Septuagint and Dries de Crom's "Translation Equivalence in the Prologue to Greek Ben Sirach."
Bulletin of the International Organization of Septuagint and Cognate Studies (BIOSCS)
The first 33 volumes of the bulletin, which is now entitled the Journal of Septuagint and Cognate Studies, are available online. This is an indispensable resource for Septuagint studies.
Cara Murphy's Examining the Septuagint: An Exploration of the Greek Old Testament's Unique Heritage and Lasting Impact on the New Testament
Cara Murphy's Master of Arts thesis under Donald Fowler explores three questions. First, what is the origin of the Septuagint? Second, what is the nature of the Septuagint's language? Finally, what is the relationship between the Septuagint and Acts 13?
Daniel M. O'Hare's 'Have You Seen, Son of Man?': Preliminary Studies in the Translation and Vorlage of LXX Ezekiel 40-48
This is a .pdf of Daniel O'Hare's 2009 PhD dissertation under Gary Anderson. The thesis explores the translational goals of the LXX translator of Ezekiel 40-48 in light of the following: "biblical corpora existed in variant literary editions" and methodologies in the study of the Septuagint, which include either a focus on translation technique or a focus on reception-history.
David deSilva's The Septuagint (Youtube lecture)
An introduction to the Greek translation of the Old Testament and its importance for Hellenistic Judaism and early Christianity.
Emanuel Tov
This is a link to Emanuel Tov's website. If you navigate from there to his "publications" tab, you will find almost every one of his articles available in .pdf free. This is an invaluable resource for Septuagint studies, Hebrew studies, and the textual criticism of the Old Testament.
James Alexander Arieti's A Study in the Septuagint of the Book of Amos
This dissertation traces the early translation and transmission of the book Amos carefully comparing the MSS text with the LXX. 
Jan Joosten's Interpretation and Meaning in the Septuagint Translation
Jan Joosten presented this shortened paper at the international conference on Translation–Interpretation–Meaning, held at the Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies on January 27-29, 2005. The paper grapples with the fact that a translation can never completely be true to the source text due to a number of factors, yet it remains as faithful as possible. How does this fact relate to the translation of the word of God? Joosten compares Genesis 12:4 in the Septuagint and the Masoretic Texts.
Jennifer Mary Dines' The Septuagint of Amos: A Study in Interpretation
This dissertation attempts to identify the exegetical character of Amos (LXX) and to trace its influence on biblical interpretation to the mid-fifth century CE. 
John Weevers LXX Text Histories
John Weevers LXX Histories of Exodus, Deuteronomy, Leviticus, and Numbers are available for free in pdf format. 
Ken Chan's The Information Structure of the Book of Esther in the Septuagint
This link is Ken Chan's PhD dissertation under Kevin Smith and Frank Jabini at the South African Theological Seminary. Ken uses functional linguistics in order to discover the purpose of the Septuagint book of Esther and its discourse boundaries.
Keunjoo Kim's Theology and Identity of the Egyptian Jewish Diaspora in Septuagint of Isaiah
The author argues that the Septuagint version of Isaiah is not simply a translation of the Hebrew book. LXX Isaiah is also an interpretation of the book that reflects the theological dispositions of the translator's community in Egypt. He argues that "free translators" should not be attributed to a different Vorlage (source) or a difficult construction, but is the result of a the translator's theological views.
Lexham Greek-English Interlinear Septuagint
Logos Bible Software has created this interlinear Septuagint, which uses Rahlf's LXX as the foundation for the Greek text.
Brian Davidson is currently a PhD candidate under the mentorship of Dr. Peter Gentry. His focus is on the textual history of the Old Testament specifically as it relates to the Septuagint, and he shares his thoughts on the Septuagint and other matters here on this blog.
Mario Cimosa and Gillian Bonney's Angels, Demons and the Devil in the Book of Job
How does the Septuagint version of Job understand angels, demons and the devil? Mario Cimosa and Gillian Bonney base their study of Job on the Göttingen edition of the Septuagint. The authors compare their findings against the apocryphal and deuterocanonical texts found at Qumran.
Niccacci's Marked Syntactical Structures in Biblical Greek in Comparison with Biblical Hebrew
Niccacci explores the markedness of nominal clauses in both biblical Hebrew and biblical Greek. Both languages exhibit proclivities towards verb-subject-complement as normal sentence order. When this is altered, these exceptions must be further explored.
Nikolaos Domazakis' Septuagintal Hapax Legomena and Neologisms in 2 Maccabees, 4-7
Domazakis' MA Thesis under Professor Karin Blomqvist explores the language of 2 Maccabees 4-7. This text provides the possibility for a rich pay out due to the fact that it was originally written in Greek (not liable to the translationese of the LXX), yet is thoroughly religious in nature.
Ottley's The Book of Isaiah According to the Septuagint
A two-volume work on the Greek text of Isaiah compared to the Hebrew edition. Volume one is an introduction and translation of Isaiah according to Codex Alexandrinus. Volume two contains the Greek text of Isaiah along with commentary.
Peter Nagel's An Investigation of the Theologically Explicit Insertions in the Greek Translations of the Hebrew Version of Esther
Many interpreters have struggled with the book of Esther in the Hebrew. The Septuagint translators also struggled with the book in its Hebrew form. Part of this discomfort was due to the fact that God is not mentioned once in book and that there is no mention of specific religious practices. Nagel searches the LXX translation of the original Hebrew version of Esther in order to discover the theologically motivated changes that were made to the text.
Pietersma's Home Page
Albert Pietersma is a key player in the current discussions of the Septuagint. At his home page you will find a virtually all of his published articles free in .pdf format. The topics of his published articles include Psalms, Translation Technique, work on the NETS, and much much more.
Review of Timothy Michael Law's "When God Spoke Greek"
Brian LePort over at Near Emmaus organized a blog tour for Timothy Michael Law's When God Spoke Greek. Each of the book's 13 chapters were divided among Septuagint bloggers and reviewed.
Robert Timothy McLay's Translation Technique and Textual Studies in the Old Greek and Theodotion Versions of Daniel
Robert McLay's PhD dissertation proposes that attention to more than literalism in terms of translation technique is needed in the study of the Septuagint. Modern Linguistic research must be incorporated. McLay's dissertation develops and applies such a model to the Old Greek and Theodotion versions of Daniel.

Scott B. Noegel's Wordplay and Translation Technique in the Septuagint of Job
Scott Noegel, professor of Near Eastern Languages and Civilization at the University of Washington, explores the Septuagint's treatment of Janus parallelism in Job. He analyses six examples form the book of Job: John 3:25-26; 10:7-8; 20:23-24; 28:9-10; 29:19-20; and 39:19-20). The ultimate proposal of the study is that "an awareness of Hebrew ambiguity might account for some instances of textual variance in the LXX in particular, and in the various other ancient translations in general." This article was originally published in Aula Orientalis 14 (1995), 33-44.
John Meade, a PhD graduate of Southern Baptist under Peter Gentry, blogs about the Septuagint, Hexapla, Peshitta, Vulgate, and the Targums here. Though it hasn't been updated since the fall of 2013, you may still find some things that he has written helpful.
Sidney Jellicoe's The Septuagint and Modern Study
Jellicoe's treatment of the Septuagint is more than 60 years removed from Swete's Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek (on which, see below). This book is not meant, in any way, to supplant the work of Swete. Instead, Jellicoe sought to address, shed light on, and perhaps answer some of the questions that have arisen in the study of the LXX since the time of Swete. Jellicoe covers a host of issues in this work. These topics include: Introduction including a history of the LXX's beginnings and development, transmission history (Origen, the Letter of Aristeas, Philo), the early and later revisions, the manuscripts of the LXX, the text-critical editions of the LXX, the language and style of the translators, and finally the current situation in LXX studies. This text is instrumental in discovering the history and development of LXX studies, though it is a bit dated.
Sollamo's An Example of Consistency: Interpretation by the Translator of the Greek Genesis in Rendering the Hebrew Semipreposition לִפְנֵי
Though Sollamo's dissertation dealt with the three semantic fields of לפני defined as local, temporal, and intermediate field, she was not able to cover the philosophy or psychology of the translator, as it was a question that was outside the scope of the study. This paper seeks to address that question.
Swete's An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek
This book is available free for viewing online and download.
Swete's The Old Testament in Greek According to the Septuagint
Henry Barclay Swete's three volume set on the Greek Old Testament is available for free in multiple formats: Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3.
Thackeray's A Grammar of the Old Testament in Greek
This book is available free for viewing online and download.
Thackeray's Old Testament Greek Text Codex Vaticanus
Here is a diplomatic reproduction of codex Vaticanus that includes a critical apparatus with variant readings from other manuscripts. It is available in multiple formats.
Timothy Michael Law Blog
Timothy Law is the Alexander von Humbolt Fellow in the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen and is also affiliated with the Septuaginta Unternehmen. The majority of Law's studies center around matters concerning the Septuagint, and he shares some of that work with us on his blog. [Note: At this time, this blog is inaccessible, but we will keep this link for the time being with the hope that Dr. Law will resume his blogging in the near future.]
Timothy Michael Law's LXX Sessions Podcast
Timothy Law provides listeners with a 10-15 minute discussion about the Septuagint. This is a great introduction to the study of the Septuagint!
Van Der Bergh's Is Bathsheba Guilty? The Septuagint's Perspective
Van Der Bergh explores the Septuagint's interpretation of the David and Bathsheba event in 2 Samuel 11. This article appeared in the Journal for Semitics 17/1 (2008).
Van Der Louw's Transformations in the Septuagint: Towards an Interaction of Septuagint Studies and Translation Studies
Van Der Louw writes, "The aim of this study is to promote interaction between Translation Studies and the study of the Septuagint with a keen eye to methodology." The study explores matters such as the relationship between dynamic equivalence and interpretation, whether one can distinguish between linguistic features and interpretive features within a translation, and many other essential topics for the study of the LXX.
Van Pelt's Summary of Sigla and Abbreviations
This is concise handout containing abbreviations needed to read the Septuagint.  
William A. Ross: Old Testament &Septuagint Studies
Ross is a PhD candidate at Cambridge, studying under Dr. James Aitken. His area of study is the LXX, especially looking at LXX Judges linguistically with reference to koine Greek. You will find numerous helpful resources and perspectives related to the Septuagint at his blog. See especially his page LXX Resources for a number of helpful links.


Anneli Aejmelaeus' On the Trail of the Septuagint Translators
On the Trail of the Septuagint Translators is a collection of previously published essays written by Anneli Aejmelaeus. The essays are written from 1980-2005 and cover a breath of material. The author employs a translation-technical approach to the areas of syntax, statistical analysis versus theological analysis, and text-critical matters. It is Aejmelaeus' goal to discover the trail left behind by the very human translators of the original Hebrew texts. Some of the articles included are "Pariticipium conjunctum as a Criterion of Translation Technique," "OTI recitativum in Septuagintal Greek," and "What We Talk about when We Talk about Translation Technique."
Emanuel Tov's The Greek and Hebrew Bible: Collected Essays on the Septuagint
This massive tome is full of essays authored by Emanuel Tov on the Septuagint. The included essays are arranged according to topic. Topics include "General Studies," "Lexicography," "Translation Technique and Exegesis," "The Septuagint and the Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible," "The Septuagint and the Literary Criticism of te Hebrew Bible," and "Revisions of the Septuagint."
 Jennifer Dines' The Septuagint
Dines' work serves as an introduction to modern scholarly discussions on the Septuagint. In her work she surveys common terminology, primary sources, secondary sources, the content of the Septuagint, the character of individual books of the LXX, the letter of Aristeas, the origin and purpose of the LXX, the status of the LXX from Philo to Jerome, the recensions and versions of the LXX, the language and style of the LXX, and the use of the LXX from its origins to today.
John Beck's Translators as Storytellers: A Study in Septuagint Translation Technique
Beck's work is an attempt at "viewing the translators as storytellers and assessing the literary sensitivity of their work." This aim is based upon the supposition that the Old Testament, particularly narrative, is a literary composition. The author has fashioned his story in a particular way for a particular purpose. Beck provides a rationale for his approach to the Septuagint in the following syllogism, "(1) Hebrew narrative has a literary dimension. (2) Translations have a literary dimension. (3) Translations may mimic or alter the literary dimension for the parent text. Hence, it is legitimate to survey the Septuagint translator's literary sensitivity to Hebrew narrative strategies." Beck proceeds to note that the translator storyteller can either mimic of alter the literary dimension of the parent text. Narrative, he notes, tends toward the later, while law texts tend toward the former. Beck's methodological approach includes a three-fold analysis of several passages: a linguistic model, a narrative-critical model, and a narrative-geographical model.
Karen Jobes and Moisés Silva's Invitation to the Septuagint
Invitation to the Septuagint was born out of Karen Jobes' doctoral program, wherein she came to the conclusion that it was necessary to have a warm and inviting text that introduces the Septuagint to students with no prior knowledge of the subject. This text covers a host of topics within LXX studies including the terminology commonly used, history of the LXX, the current state of scholarship, foundational concepts, and major issues in the study of the Septuagint. The authors' desire for the book is that it might serve as a bridge between those interested in LXX studies and the "more sophisticated literature produced by scholars working in the field."
Muraoka's A Greek-English Lexicon of the Septuagint
Muraoka has provided a Greek-English lexicon that has been specifically tailored to the text of the Septuagint. Muraoka does not simply provide a gloss for each Greek word. He includes synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and a distinction between literal and figurative renderings.
Muraoka's A Greek-Hebrew/Aramaic Two-Way Index to the Septuagint
Muraoka's Greek-Hebrew Index to the Septuagint is an indispensable tool for all students and scholars of the Septuagint. In this work, Muraoka lists the corresponding Hebrew words for a given Greek work in the Septuagint. He also provides statistical data for how many times the words correspond to one another. This tool is helpful for all interested in the lexical dimension of Septuagint studies specifically the issue of stereotyping.
Staffan Olofsson's God is My Rock: A Study of Translation Technique and Theological Exegesis in the Septuagint
God is My Rock is a revised version of Staffan Oloffson's dissertation that was presented to the faculty of the Uppsala University. The thrust of the dissertation centers around the anthropomorphisms in Psalms specifically and the metaphorical names of God used throughout the Septuagint generally.